Precious and Semi-Precious Stones
Actually the gem stones found at present are innumerable but
according to the specialist of Indian Gemmology there are 84
gem stones. Amongst them nine – Ruby, Pearl, Emerald,
Yellow or White Sapphire (Pukhraj), Diamond, Blue Sapphire,
Gomedha and Cat’s Eye occupy the prestigious category of Navratnas.
Five of them viz. Ruby, Pearl, Diamond, Emerald and Blue Sapphire
have been given the distinction of being termed as Maha Ratnas
(superior most class of gems). These are also precious stones
and the others are classed as semi precious stones. But there
are several semi precious stones which by their brilliance and
luster do not look inferior to some of the above mentioned Nav
Ratnas(nine gems). In hardness, durability, scarcity, luster
and transparency they do not lag behind the Nav Ratnas like
Emeralds, Gomedha, Cat’s Eyes and Sapphire.These stones are
very importent for us.
The Eighty-four Gems of Indian gemology are as under:
(1) Ruby: This is of color red. This is a precious
stone and is very costly. Ruby is found in rosy, blackish and
sky like colors also.(For sun )
(2) Diamond: This is found in white, yellow,
rosy, red, blue and black colors.( For sukra )
(3) Emerald: It is green, in bottlelike color
or tarnish white.( For Mercury )
(4) Blue Sapphire: Some call it only sapphire.
This gem is found in dark, ordinary or light blur colors.( For
(5) Cat’s Eye: This is yellowish or blackish
in color. Inside the stone is visible a shining band which moves
when the stone is turned. Because of the band the gem is also
called Sutra Mani. (For ketu )
(6) Pearl: This is found in white, red, yellow
or black colors. Rosy color pearls are also seen. ( For Moon
(7) Coral: Generally Corals are found in red
and sindoori colors. White corals are also available. They are
a later discovery. ( For mars )
(8) Yellow(or white) Sapphire: This is found
in yellow( dark and light, generally in light yellow), white
and blue colors. Actually the one having blue color becomes
Blue Sapphire. Ancients called it ‘Pushpaag’(Jupitor )
(9) Gomedha: It is said that this gem belongs
to the zircon family. Its color is like red colored smoke. Some
have given its color as that of honey and other as the urine
of cow. ( Rahu )
(10) Lalri: This has the color of rose ( light
red - ).
(11) Turquoise: This has sky like color.
(12) Peridot: This is of very light green color.
(13) Opal: This is available in all colors.
The one with white color has also slight sparkling of other
colors. Multi-colored opals are also found.
(14) Tourmaline: This is a soft stone but is
available in white, red, green, brown and many other colors.
This is a very effective gem stone and has many qualities. Multicolored
gems are also found.
(15) Spinel Ruby: This has darkish and yellowish
(16) Topaz: This is also citrine. This has
light golden color.
Golden topaz looks very attractive.
(17) Amethyst: This is of light or dark violet
(18) Gold Stone: This is orangish red color
with spots of golden color. This is a very soft and weak stone.
(19) Rock Crystal: This is of shining white
color. If cut finely it looks like white Topaz.
(20) Moon Stone: This has the color of a white
cloud or tooth of a cow. Inside the stone there is a glistening
band, which rolls when the stone is turned.
(21) Romni: This is a soft stone of dark red
color with a blackish tinge.
(22) Garnet: This is of blackish red color.
(23) Ludhya: This is of red color.
(24) Maryam: This is of shining white color.
(25) Load Stone: This is also called Chamak
stone. This is of white color tending to be blackish.
(26) Sindooria: This is of light rosy color.
(27) Neeli: This is a soft stone resembling
(28) Smoky Quartz: This is of smoky light golden
(29) Aquamarine: This is of light green color.
It is mistaken for Emerald. Aquamarine is more transparent than
emerald and is much less expensive.
(30) Jade: This is green in color but without
brilliance or luster. It i9s very cheap stone.
(31) Blood stone: This is of green in color
with red spots over it.
(32) Banshi: This is a soft stone of green
(33) Durvenajf: This has color of unripe paddy.
(34) Suleimani: This is a stone of black color
with white stripe on it.
(35) Alaimani: This is brown in color. Belongs
to the Suleimani family.
(36) Jajemani: This also belong to the Suleimani
family. It is of brown color with white stripes on it.
(37) Tursava: It is a soft stone of yellowish
(38) Ahwa: This is a stone of rosy color.
(39) Aabri: This is stone of black color.
(40) Savore: This is a stone of green color
white brown stripe on it.
(41) Lapis Lazuli: This a soft stone of blue
color. In ancient times in western countries it was recognized
as Blue Sapphire.
(42) Kudurat: This is of black color with dots
of yellow and white color.
(43) Chitti: This is a stone with a stripe
of gold like color.
(44) White Jade: This is a white stone with
the hue of grapes.
(45) Laroo: This is a kind of marvar stone.
(46) Marvar: This stone is found in three colors-
bamboo like, red and white.
(47) Kidney Stone: This stone is light green
(48) Kasauti: This is used to test the purity
(49) Darchana: It is of the color of darchana.
(50) Haqiq-al-bahar: This comes out from watery
places. The color of this stone is yellowish green.
(51) Halan: This is a stone of rosy color.
The color rolls when the stone is moved.
(52) Seejri: This is a white colored stone
with impression of a tree on its body.
(53) Mubenajf: This is a white colored stone
with thin hair like black line or lines.
(54) Amber: This is of dull wheatish color.
(55) Jhana: This is a very soft stone. A touch
of water destroys the stone.
(56) Sang Basri: This is used to make surma
(a medicinal grey powder) for eyes.
(57) Dantla: This is yellow in color.
(58) Makra: This is a black stone with the
impression of a spider’s web on it.
(59) Sangeeya: This is white in color.
(60) Goodri: This is a favourite stone of Muslim
(61) Kamla: Whitish green.
(62) Sifri: Green and sky blue color mixed.
(63) Hareed: Black – brownish. Used for making
(64) Hawas: This is green colored with a golden
(65) Seengli: This stone belongs to the ruby
family but it is much softer and inexpensive stone. This is
of red colour inclined to blackish ness.
(66) Dhedi: Black – used for making cups and
(67) Agate: This is found in various colors.
It is a very inexpensive lasting stone. It is considered very
auspicious and effective by Muslim saints. It is also used as
a birth stone.
(68) Gouri: This is also available in various
colors. It has white stripes. This is used for making measuring
weights for jewelers.
(69) Seeya: This is black in color and is used
to make statues.
(70) Seemak: This is of red color with a yellowish
tinge. There are rosy colored sprinklings on it. This is used
for making mortars in which medicines are triturated.
(71) Moosa: White dusty colored, used for making
(72) Panghan: Black – used for making toys.
(73) Amleeya: Dark rosy used for making mortar.
(74) Door: Dark brown used for making mortars.
(75) Liliar: Black – used for making mortar.
(76) Khara: Greenish – used for making mortar.
(77) Para zahar: Its colored like a white bamboo.
It has medicinal properties. Its paste heals wounds rapidly.
(78) Gypsum: Dusty colored used for making
(79) Zahar Mohra: Greenish. It is believed
that poison if put in a cup made of this mineral loses its evil
(80) Rawaat: This is found in red and blue
colors. The stones give relief in fevers. The blue ones have
(81) Sohan- Makhki: Looks like white clay.
Considered useful for urinary trouble.
(82) Hazrat-e-ood: Black – used for making
medicines for eyes in the Unani system of medicine.
(83) Surma: Black.
(84) Paras: Iron turns into gold by this stone.
It is a very rare stone and very few have seen it.
We find it difficult to accept many of the stones mentioned
in the above list as gems stones but according to Indian Gemmology
all these have been recognized as such. It is possible that
many of them may be known in the country by different names
but we have not been able to find their English equivalent.
From amongst 84 gems mentioned here the following stones can
be used for planetary affiliations because of their color, durability,
hardness, luster and beliefs about them.
Spinel, Turquoise, Peridot, Opal, Tourmaline, Topaz, Amethyst,
Rock Crystal, Moonstone, Garnet, Neeli, Aquamarine, Jade, Blood
Stone, Lapis-Lazuli and Agate
Every stone has their own special quality. Specific Gravity,
hardness & Different Colours and their effect is also very
important that is why we have to be very carful while assigning
you your stone.
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